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HMRC’s R&D Reforms: Key Facts

An article by GC Business Growth Hub partner and innovation funding specialist Catax on reforms to the R&D tax relief scheme and how they will impact businesses.

The Autumn Statement 2022 included reforms to the Research and Development (R&D) tax relief scheme, which will come into play from 1 April 2023. But what will these look like, and what should businesses and their R&D advisers be doing in preparation?

Changes relating to accounting periods beginning on or after 1 April 2023 (SME and RDEC)

Claims need to be more comprehensive

All claims will need to be accompanied by a detailed report outlining R&D activities and how they mirror HMRC legislation. This narrative will need to include evidence to support an R&D project’s scientific or technological advancement, with specific detail on the obstacles and uncertainties encountered and attempted to overcome, and a breakdown of qualifying costs. The report will also need to be submitted digitally. Advisers will have to put their name to the report, and all claims must be signed off by a senior officer at the claimant company.

Businesses need to notify HMRC in advance   

From 1 April 2023, every company that has never submitted an R&D tax relief claim before must inform HMRC that they are considering a submission within six months from the end of the accounting period for which the claim relates. A business that has made a claim in the last three accounting periods does not need to notify in advance.  

A consequence of this new requirement is that new claimants will not be able to include the previous two closed tax years’ R&D projects within their first claim.

If the company notifies HMRC but does not make a claim, they are not penalised in any way but they will need to re-notify when they are ready.

The time period to actually make the claim remains at two years from the end of the accounting period.

There are still outstanding questions about how this notification process will actually work. We don’t yet know whether it can be submitted digitally, or even whether an adviser can send the notification on a client’s behalf. One obvious risk under the new rules is that businesses that do not get timely advice on claiming R&D tax relief could miss the deadline and lose out.

Changes relating to expenditure incurred on or after 1 April 2023

R&D rate changes

On a positive note, in the Autumn Statement Hunt reaffirmed the government’s commitment to increase R&D spend to £20 billion by 2025.  

He announced increased generosity to the Research and Development Expenditure Credit (RDEC), whereby for expenditure on or after 1 April 2023, the RDEC rate is set to increase from 13% to 20%. This is an after-tax increase from 10.53% to 16.2% for a company paying tax at 19% and an increase to 15% for a company paying tax at 25%.

For small and medium-sized UK businesses utilising the SME scheme, with expenditure on or after 1 April 2023, the uplift rate on tax relief will fall from 130% to 86%, and the tax credit rate will drop from 14.5% to 10% for loss-making businesses.

All of this follows the recent increase in corporation tax for some companies (depending on the company’s profit), therefore companies with profits in excess of £250,000 will see little impact.  

Alongside the Chancellor announcing that the changes are to combat R&D fraud, we believe they are the first step in bringing the two separate schemes into line as a single RDEC scheme. 

All changes are for expenditure on or after 1 April 2023, so companies with accounting periods that straddle this date will see a mixed claim of old and new rates.  

Of course, it will be some time before we start making claims that are impacted by the change, the earliest possible being any claims for a period ending 30 April 2023. 

We have illustrated below how the rate changes will affect your business now and following the corporation tax increase from April 2023:



Remind me — why is all this happening?

The background to all this is that HMRC is cracking down on abuse of the R&D tax relief scheme. They estimate that £469 million has been lost through error and fraud.

Changes to what is eligible

Many of the measures coming into effect for accounting periods beginning on or after 1 April 2023 are linked to cracking down on abuse of the scheme, though there are some other changes around what is eligible for relief.

  1. Data & cloud computing costs

The legislation is being updated to allow for claims on data sets, and cloud computing costs for accounting periods beginning on or after 1 April 2023.

Data claims can be made where a company buys data, purely for R&D, which has no resale value or lasting value to the company. Businesses will also be able to claim on cloud computing services and cloud storage costs specifically incurred for R&D.

Data and computing costs are only eligible when they relate to direct R&D support activities, and so do not apply to finance or HR functions, for example.

  1. Exclusion of R&D costs for activities taking place overseas

In an effort to refocus R&D tax relief towards innovation in the UK and encourage businesses to undertake innovation and R&D here, for accounting periods from 1 April, subcontractor and externally provided worker activities taking place overseas can no longer form part of an R&D claim.

There are some exceptions, however. These occur if material factors — such as geography, environment, population or other conditions — required for the project are not present in the UK. For instance, in the case of deep ocean research. Another exception is when regulatory or legal requirements mean activities must take place outside the UK, such as with clinical trials.

What does my business need to do?

The R&D tax reforms will aim to tighten up regulation of claims and ensure the government scheme is being utilised correctly and lawfully. As an innovative business, your role is to plan ahead for the changes. Here are some useful tips to follow now until April 2023:

  • Maintain robust record-keeping, including keeping track of costs relating to all projects – including R&D activities – any overseas activities, and confirming eligibility under the new legislation. This will all be vital for when it comes to compiling the detailed technical report accompanying the claim.
  • Complete due diligence when researching R&D advisers to assist with an R&D claim, ask for qualifications, memberships to professional bodies and read client reviews.
  • Prepare to make your next claim digitally or consult with a professional R&D adviser who can do this for you on your behalf.

How can Catax help?

Overall, an increase in R&D investment is great news, which will certainly go a long way in placing innovation at the heart of the UK’s economic recovery. 

However, due to the lower benefit achievable for SMEs, this makes it more critical for genuine innovators to use reputable advisors to optimise their tax relief claim, by ensuring they identify as much of the qualifying R&D costs as can be supported by the guidance and legislation.  This way, businesses can be assured their R&D efforts are fully rewarded. 

Catax’s professional team of experts will continue to campaign for tighter regulations and to help shape the future of the R&D incentive.  

Catax also specialises in a variety of other areas of tax relief and innovation funding, including commercial property tax relief, patent box and grant funding

To get in touch with Catax, please contact:

Dawn Coker, Group Strategic Partnerships Director on  

Naomi Lawton, Partnership & Relationship Manager on


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